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Zembrin study; the Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology

Acute Effects of Sceletium Tortuosum (Zembrin®), a Dual 5- HT Reuptake and PDE4 Inhibitor, in the Human Amygdala and Its Connection to the Hypothalamus David Terburg, Supriya Syal, Lisa A Rosenberger, Sarah Heany, Nicole Phillips, Nigel Gericke, Dan J Stein, Jack van Honk Cite this article as: David Terburg, Supriya Syal, Lisa A Rosenberger, Sarah Heany, Nicole Phillips, Nigel Gericke, Dan J Stein, Jack van Honk, Acute Effects of Sceletium Tortuosum (Zembrin®), a Dual 5-HT Reuptake and PDE4 Inhibitor, in the Human Amygdala and Its Connection to the Hypothalamus, Neuropsycho- pharmacology accepted article preview 1 August 2013; doi: 10.1038/npp.2013.183. This is a PDF file of an unedited peer-reviewed manuscript that has been accepted for publication. NPG are providing this early version of the manuscript as a service to our customers. The manuscript will undergo copy editing, typesetting and a proof review before it is published in its final form. Please

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Depressed? Six points to think About

Feeling sad every now and then is a fundamental part of the human experience, especially during difficult or trying times. But, persistent feelings of sadness, anxiety, hopelessness, disinterest . . . in people and activities once enjoyed may be symptoms of depression. Depression is not something that a person can ignore or simply will away. It should be taken seriously with an experienced medical professional. In the meantime here are some fundamental points to consider if you feel you are depressed. Do not keep your emotions to yourself. Vent them. An experienced medical professional is best but in the absence of one, talking to someone close can help address your depression. Talk to a friend (s), family members or anyone else you consider to be trustworthy. It will facilitate the releases of stress. Here is a list of several protocols that are designed to support depression and anxiety. If you

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Sceletium Tortuosum, doctor prescribed and Stress

Though in modern times stress gets a bad rap, back in the day stress actually served a purpose, to protect us. It geared us up for any potentially harmful situation. When we were threatened our adrenal system started pumping and we become hyper vigilant—acutely aware of any potentially harmful situation, like a saber tooth tiger watching us from his perch above or an anaconda the size of a fire hose, lurking in the swamp. Stressed yet?   Modern man’s stress stimulators are different. We deal mostly with invisible emotional stresses. But, they are just as pernicious, probably more so. Our heart doesn’t know the difference between losing a loved one or being six months late on our house payment. We can’t run from either of those stress triggers so our adrenal systems keep pumping and pumping out epinephrine, cortisol, and dopamine.   Unfortunately for many, stress is much too prevalent.

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What is Forskolin?

Forskolin is a chemical found in the roots of the plant Plectranthus barbatus (Coleus forskohlii). This plant has been for centuries to treat cardio disorders (high blood pressure, angina, chest pains . . .) as well as asthma, allergies and skin conditions; (eczema, psoriasis) as well as obesity, irritable bowl syndrome, urinary tract infections, bladder infections, advanced cancer, blood clots, sexual problems in men, insomnia, and convulsions. Healthcare providers sometimes give forskolin intravenously (by IV) for cardiac failure. It is not uncommon for asthma sufferers to inhale it. Glaucoma sufferers often use it in an eye solution. How does it work? Forskolin works on muscles in the heart and in the walls of the blood vessels. It produces a more powerful heartbeat and widening of the blood vessels, which lowers blood pressure.

In vitro permeation of mesembrine alkaloids from Sceletium tortuosum across porcine buccal, sublingual, and intestinal mucosa

Planta Med., 2012 vol. 78(3) pp. 260-8 Shikanga, EA; Hamman, JH; Chen, W; Combrinck, S; Gericke, N; Viljoen, AM Sceletium tortuosum is an indigenous South African plant that has traditionally been used for its mood-enhancing properties. Recently, products containing S. tortuosum have become increasingly popular and are commonly administered as tablets, capsules, teas, decoctions, or tinctures, while traditionally the dried plant material has been masticated. This study evaluated the in vitro permeability of the four major S. tortuosum alkaloids (i.e., mesembrine, mesembrenone, mesembrenol, and mesembranol) across porcine intestinal, sublingual, and buccal tissues in their pure form and in the form of three different crude plant extracts, namely water, methanol, and an acid-base alkaloid-enriched extract. The permeability of mesembrine across intestinal tissue was higher than that of the highly permeable reference compound caffeine (which served as a positive control for membrane permeability) both in its pure form, as well as in

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A Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Extract Sceletium tortuosum in Healthy Adults

J Altern Complement Med, 2013 Nell, H; Siebert, M; Chellan, P; Gericke, N Abstract Objectives: The objective of the study was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of two doses (8 mg and 25 mg once daily) of a 2:1 standardized extract of the South African medicinal plant Sceletium tortuosum (L.) N.E. Br., trademarked Zembrin(,) in healthy adult volunteers over a three-month period. Design: This was a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled single center study. Setting: Tiervlei Trial Centre, Karl Bremer Hospital, Bellville, Cape Town, South Africa. Participants: The study took place between February 2 and July 27, 2009. Thirty-seven healthy adults were recruited from the general population. Intervention: Participants were randomized to receive either one of two doses of study medication, or an identical placebo, taken once daily for 3 months. Of the 37 subjects, 12, 12, and 13 subjects received 8 mg extract Sceletium tortuosum (Zembrin), 25 mg extract Sceletium tortuosum (Zembrin), and

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Pharmacological actions of the South African medicinal and functional food plant Sceletium tortuosum and its principal alkaloids

J Ethnopharmacol, 2011 vol. 137(3) pp. 1124-9 Harvey, AL; Young, LC; Viljoen, AM; Gericke, NP ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The South African plant Sceletium tortuosum has been known for centuries for a variety of traditional uses, and, more recently, as a possible source of anti-anxiety or anti-depressant effects. A standardized extract Zembrin(?) was used to test for pharmacological activities that might be relevant to the ethno pharmacological uses, and three of the main alkaloids were also tested. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A standardized ethanol extract was prepared from dried plant material, along with the purified alkaloids mesembrine, mesembrenone and mesembrenol. These were tested on a panel of receptors, enzymes and other drug targets, and for cytotoxic effects on mammalian cells. RESULTS: The extract was a potent blocker in 5-HT transporter binding assays (IC(50) 4.3 μg/ml) and had powerful inhibitory effects on phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) (IC(50) 8.5 μg/ml), but not other phosphodiesterases. There were

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Sceletium tortuosum loneliness and isolation

Loneliness is a complex and mostly unpleasant emotional response to isolation. It is a perception of feeling alone, a state of mind caused by unwanted feelings of emptiness. Though a universal emotion, loneliness is unique to all of us. Isolation and loneliness are not the same thing. Thoreau craved isolation but did not experience loneliness. On the other hand, the intensely social Marilyn Monroe died both alone and lonely. Many people, like Marilyn, crave human contact, yet their state of mind makes it very difficult for them to completely connect with others. College freshmen, away from home for the first time often experience major loneliness despite being surrounded by environments teaming with peers, so they isolate in their dorm rooms.Young soldiers, deployed to foreign countries often experiences tremendous feelings of loneliness despite being surrounded by other soldiers. Bad marriages, both young or old, can bring on loneliness. Isolation born of

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The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine

Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Extract Zembrin Sceletium tortuosum in Healthy Adults Objectives: To evaluate the safety and tolerability of two doses (8 mg and 25 mg once daily) of a 2:1 standardized extract of the South African medicinal plant Sceletium tortuosum (L.) N.E. Br., trademarked Zembrin®, in healthy adult volunteers over a three-month period. Setting: Tiervlei Trial Centre, Karl Bremer Hospital, Bellville, Cape Town, South Africa. Participants: Thirty-seven healthy adults recruited from general population. Intervention: Participants were randomized to receive either one of two doses of study medication, or an identical placebo, taken once daily for 3 months. Of the 37 subjects, 12, 12, and 13 subjects received 8 mg extract Sceletium tortuosum (Zembrin®), 25 mg extract Sceletium tortuosum (Zembrin®), and placebo treatment, respectively. Outcome measures: No efficacy variables were assessed. The safety and tolerability variables comprised of vital signs, physical examination, 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG), laboratory assessments (hematology, biochemistry, and urinalysis), and the recording

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Zembrin® wins Sustainability Award at Anaheim show in California.

First of Three Clinical Studies is Published Zembrin®, received the Annual Functional Ingredients Magazine Editor’s Choice Award for Most Sustainable Ingredient at the Engredea show in Anaheim, CA earlier this month. The South African-produced Zembrin® is an extract of a cultivated elite selection of the indigenous plant Sceletium tortuosum, which for centuries has been used and traded by San hunter-gatherers and Khoi Khoi pastoralists for medicinal, social and spiritual purposes. Zembrin® has been sustainably developed for more than a decade and is the recipient of Africa’s first “prior informed consent benefit-sharing agreement” with a South African indigenous community. The terms of this agreement state that six percent of all income from Zembrin® will be shared with the San Council, which formally agreed to allocate 50% of their share with the villagers who provided input on plant selection and dosing that were pivotal to the initial research and development on Zembrin®.

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